by Ivonne Ortiz, Training and Education Specialist for the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence
Elder abuse can be defined as a single or repeated act that causes harm or distress to an older person. The abuse can take various forms, such as physical, mental, emotional, sexual, and economic. It may also be the result of negligence, intentional or not.
There are other terms used to define abuse of older adults; one of the most used is abuse in later life. Elder abuse is a broad term that applies to abuse, neglect, and exploitation of an older individual in a trusting relationship with the offender. Elder abuse also includes harm that occurs because an older person is targeted based on age or disability (U.S. DOJ, 2013U.) such as in contractor scams.
Abuse in later life is the segment of elder abuse that focuses specifically on those cases where the abuse is perpetrated by someone in an ongoing relationship (e.g., spouse, partner, family member, or caregiver) with the victim. Sexual abuse and stalking by an offender who is known to the victim or a stranger is also included in the definition. Power and control dynamics, similar to those seen in domestic violence and sexual assault cases involving younger victims, are often present in abuse in later life situations; therefore, older victims may benefit from services provided by domestic and sexual violence programs.
The National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life (NCALL) developed a series of information sheets to increase awareness of abuse in later life and to provide valuable information and resources to service providers and justice professionals who may work with older victims. These include an overview of the issue, unique challenges in investigating and prosecuting these types of cases, service provider tips on working with older victims, ideas for engaging community partners, and a resource list, among others.
LISTEN TO A DISCUSSION OF THE DYNAMICS
Advocates are encouraged to listen to this 30-minute BlogTalkRadio session, recorded in 2011 for World Elder Abuse Awareness Day. This segment discusses the “silver tsunami,” the impact of aging on our society, ageism, and how community-based programs can work together to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect in later life. Listeners will hear from experts at the National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life, the University of California Irvine Center of Excellence on Elder Abuse & Neglect and the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape, with support being provided by the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.
According to the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA), “no one knows precisely how many older Americans are being abused, neglected, or exploited. While evidence accumulated to date suggests that many thousands have been harmed, there are no official national statistics.” Some of the reasons why this is the case include:
• There are multiple definitions of elder abuse. For service providers, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly
what actions or inactions constitute abuse.
• There is no uniform reporting system from state to state, and as a result, the statistics vary widely.
• The is no large-scale national collection of comprehensive data.
“In the absence of a large-scale, nationwide tracking system, studies of prevalence and incidence conducted over the past few years by independent investigators have been crucial in helping us understand the magnitude of the problem” (NCEA, 2005). The best available estimates claim that between 1 and 2 million Americans age 65 or older have been injured, exploited, or otherwise mistreated by someone on who they depended on for care or protection.
The World Report on Ageing and Health outlines a framework for action to foster healthy aging built around the new concept of functional ability..
Globally, the number of cases of elder abuse is expected to increase given the rapidly aging population in many countries, and the possibility that their needs cannot be fully satisfied due to lack of resources. The UN’s World Population Prospects estimates that by 2050, the global population of over 60 years of age will have more than doubled, from 900 million in 2015 to about 2,000 million. Click here to see the full-size animation of the expected global growth.
Elder abuse transcends all ethnicities, but there are several specific issues and distinguishing dynamics that confront different communities of color. The Administration on Aging (AoA) states that disparities in socioeconomics and health are causative factors that undermine the accessibility and effective utilization of health and human services by communities of color. In response to the increasing need for culturally appropriate services, the AoA developed a cultural competency guide titled, Achieving Cultural Competence: A Guide for Providers of Services to Older Americans and Their Families. This guide is a compilation of data as well as best practices for improving services to members of these growing communities.
The National Center on Elder Abuse also recognizes that there is a lack of research and understanding about elder abuse in the African American community that has resulted in limited information about this issue. “General cultural beliefs, views, and norms within [this] community offer both risk and protective factors that influence elder abuse in this population. Socioeconomic variables, such as poverty, institutionalized racism, and structural segregation also place African American elders at risk” (NCEA, 2016).
NCEA’s brief, Mistreatment of African American Elders synthesizes information and research findings related to the mistreatment of African American elders, particularly involving financial exploitation and psychological abuse. Some of the key findings include:
• “There is limited research on elder abuse and neglect for the African American population.
• Elder abuse in the African American community is influenced by risk factors and protective
factors that span from the individual level to the community level.
• Compared to their non-African American counterparts, African Americans are disproportionately impacted by financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment ” (NCEA, 2016).
In the Latin@ community, there are also specific cultural values and beliefs that discourage victims from reporting abuse. “An elderly victim may not want to bring pena or shame to the family. Instead, the elder will decide not to report their abuse to any ‘outsiders’ and will endure the abuse for the sake of la familia" (WOCN, 2008). There are other cultural considerations and barriers that service providers should be aware of, including:
• Family structure: Some Latin@ families are hierarchical in nature.
• Immigration status: Fear of deportation can be a barrier to accessing services.
• Caretaker roles: Latino children traditionally have the responsibility of caring for their parents,
even when some may be financially unable to do so (WOCN, 2008).
Media Campaign Video
The “No Somos Invisibles”/”We are not Invisible” campaign, brings awareness to the discriminatory and violent treatment that many Peruvian older adults are experiencing.
Domestic violence and sexual assault programs are equipped to help victims of abuse, regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs or age. Although there are particular dynamics and barriers faced by older victims, domestic and sexual violence victim advocates can make a difference. Many older victims of abuse may benefit from services offered by programs such as:
• Safety planning,
• individual or group counseling,
• emergency shelter,
• legal advocacy, among others.
These programs can be particularly appropriate for those older victims who do not fit the intake criteria for adult protective services, but who need help in addressing violence and abuse in their lives. Advocates should remember that because of the complexity of some of these cases, collaboration with the aging services network, adult protective services, health care providers, and others is essential.
VAWnet’s special collection Preventing and Responding to Domestic & Sexual Violence in Later Life, focuses specifically on domestic and sexual violence (DV/SV) in later life, highlighting the complexities of older people's DV/SV experiences and emphasizing the importance of collaborative and multi-pronged approaches to addressing DV/SV in later life.
World Elder Abuse Awareness Day (WEAAD) was established by the International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse and the World Health Organization at the United Nations on June 15, 2006. WEAAD’s goal is to promote a better understanding of abuse and neglect of older persons by raising awareness of the cultural, social, economic and demographic processes affecting elder abuse and neglect.
To learn how to get involved, downloadNCEA’S free tools & tips. You can also join NRCDV’s WEAAD free webinar, Guiding Principles for Working with Older Victims of Abuse, in collaboration with NCALL, which will highlight NCALL’s newly released guiding principles for improving services to elderly victims.
Date: Friday, June 10, 2016
Time: 3:00 - 4:30pm Eastern / 2:00 - 3:30pm Central / 12:00 - 1:30pm Pacific
• Juanita Davis, Program Manager, National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life (NCALL)
• Ann Turner, Elder Victim Services and Advocacy, National Clearinghouse on Abuse in
Later Life (NCALL)
This February, the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence is committed to bringing the experiences and needs of teens from marginalized communities to the forefront and lifting up the amazing social justice work of youth leaders on the margins. These young people (namely, Native youth, immigrants and teens in communities of color, teens with disabilities, teens who identify as LGBTQ, teens who are low-income, runaway or homeless, among others) have unique experiences and their voices are critical to any meaningful conversation about preventing and responding to dating violence and to our overall goal of creating safe and healthy communities.
Domestic violence is preventable! This October, the Domestic Violence Awareness Project of the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence seeks to foster healthy families and communities by encouraging all of us to be part of the equation Awareness + Action = Social Change. This concept originated from the Transforming Communities: Technical Assistance, Training, and Resource Center (TC-TAT), providing leadership in prevention since 1997. Awareness + Action = Social Change is a framework that offers an opportunity to engage in critical conversations about what Action looks like.
During Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month, and throughout the year, it is important to highlight the role that youth leadership has played as an effective strategy in the prevention of teen dating abuse. Research shows that young people are disproportionately impacted by partner violence, with more than 1 in 5 women and nearly 1 in 7 men experiencing some form of intimate partner violence between 11 and 17 years of age (CDC, 2011). When dealing with issues that directly affect their lives, it only makes sense that young people are meaningfully included in the planning and implementation of solutions. Teens, therefore, are best positioned to inform adults about the abuse that is impacting their lives and about effective strategies for promoting healthy relationships.
Between 1.6 and 2.8 million youth run away every year (Hammer, Finkelhor & Sedlak, 2002). This figure is staggering, yet the problem seems invisible. When a youth runs away, the impact is felt throughout the entire community. Statistics from The National Runaway Safeline show that the majority (29%) of callers identify family dynamics (divorce, remarriage, step/blended families, problems with family rules, discipline, or problems with siblings) and abuse as the reason for their call. Often kids run away from home to remove themselves from an immediately painful situation, but they have no plans or resources for what to do next.
During Domestic Violence Awareness Month (DVAM), several domestic violence shelter programs across the country will be observing National SAF-T Day, held annually on the first Saturday in October. This national event originated in 2010 as an opportunity for shelters to host a local dog walk or other community event to raise funds to start or sustain an on-site pet housing program and awareness regarding the co-occurrence between animal abuse and domestic violence.
Why is such an initiative so important? Advocates have learned that abusive partners often use the bond between victims and their companion animals to control, manipulate, and isolate their victims. Research indicates that 20 to 65% of domestic violence victims delay leaving a dangerous situation because they don’t know where to place or how to protect their pets. Some survivors return because they fear for the animals’ safety (NRCDV, 2014).
Every year, approximately 1.5 million high school students nationwide experience physical abuse from a dating partner. It is also known that 3 in 4 parents have never talked to their children about domestic violence. In light of these alarming facts, every year during the month of February advocates join efforts to raise awareness about dating violence, highlight promising practices, and encourage communities to get involved.
There are many resources available to provide information and support to victims and assist service providers and communities to decrease the prevalence of dating violence among young people. Anyone can make this happen by raising awareness about the issue, saying something about abuse when you see it and organizing your community to make a difference. Take Action!
Did you miss the Call of Unity? A recording of the session can be heard via this link with messages from national leaders, survivors, and advocates, and the dual-voice spoken word poems of ClimbingPoeTREE. The 4th Annual National Call of Unity Summary (Storify) includes links to the inspiring resources that were shared including poetry, prayer, stories, and words of gratitude and hope. View and download the Universal Prayer for use at your October 2013 DVAM Events and beyond!
Everyone knows and cares about an older person at some point in their lives; many of us throughout our entire lives—whether that person is a grandparent, an elderly parent, a mentor or coach, or an older person that has been influential to us in some way. Unfortunately, statistics show that one in ten people age 60 and older are victimized by elder abuse.
The Administration on Aging (AoA) defines elder abuse as any knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm or a serious risk of harm to a vulnerable adult. Please read on (by clicking the link above) for ways to increase your awareness of this crime and determine ways you can be involved in preventing its occurrence.
Organized by the Office on Women’s Health, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the US Department of Health and Human Services, National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, held annually on March 10th, seeks to raise awareness of the disease’s impact on women and girls, and empower people with the knowledge and tools to make a difference. Listed after the jump are several ways you can be a part of these efforts in your community, state, across the nation, and around the world!
Everyone is impacted by domestic violence and sexual assault either directly or indirectly, but many do not realize it. Now is the time to change that. Our goal this year is to teach men, youth, women — everyone within our communities — how to recognize domestic violence and offer support to speak openly about it.
Every year, UN Women: United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women join with Say NO-UNiTE to End Violence Against Women to commemorate the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. 16 Days of Activism begins on November 25 and continues through December 10 to raise awareness of this devastating issue that knows no bounds and to inspire action to end this pervasive human rights violation across the globe. Their website contains a global policy agenda, activist stories and videos demonstrating the work of their grantees, and 16 Ways to Say NO to Violence Against Women Action Steps.